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Dynamic sets of potentially interchangeable connotations: A theory of mental objects
Abstract: Analogy-making is an ability with which we can abstract from surface similarities and perceive deep, meaningful similarities between different mental objects and situations. I propose that mental objects are dynamically changing sets of potentially interchangeable connotations. Unfortunately, most models of analogy seem devoid of both semantics and relevance-extraction, postulating analogy as a one-to-one mapping devoid of connotation transfer.
Accepted commentary, Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Search intensity versus search diversity: a false tradeoff?
Alexandre Linhares and Horacio Hideki Yanasse
Abstract - An implicit tenet of modern search heuristics is that there is a mutually exclusive balance between two desirable goals: search diversity (or distribution), i.e., search through a maximum number of distinct areas, and, search intensity, i.e., a maximum search exploitation within each specific area. We claim that the hypothesis that these goals are mutually exclusive is false. We argue that it is possible to devise methods that exhibit high search intensity and high search diversity during the whole algorithmic execution. It is considered how distance metrics, i.e., functions for measuring diversity (given by the minimum number of local search steps between two solutions) and coordination policies, i.e., mechanisms for directing and redirecting search processes based on the information acquired by the distance metrics, can be used together to integrate a framework for the development of advanced collective search methods that present such desiderata of search intensity and search diversity under simultaneous coexistence. The presented model also avoids the undesirable occurrence of a problem we refer to as the ‘ergometric bike phenomenon’. Finally, this work is one of the very few analysis accomplished on a level of meta-meta-heuristics, because all arguments are independent of specific problem handled (such as scheduling, planning, etc.), of specific solution methods (such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, etc.) and of specific neighborhood or genetic operators (2-opt, crossover, etc.)
Accepted, Applied Intelligence
Decision-making and strategic thinking through analogies
Abstract. When faced with a complex scenario, how does understanding arise in one’s mind? How does one integrate disparate cues into a global, meaningful whole? Consider the chess game: how do humans avoid the combinatorial explosion? How are abstract ideas represented? The purpose of this paper is to propose a new computational model of human chess intuition and intelligence. We suggest that analogies and abstract roles are crucial to solving these landmark problems. We present a proof-of-concept model, in the form of a computational architecture, which may be able to account for many crucial aspects of human intuition, such as (i) concentration of attention to relevant aspects, (ii) how humans may avoid the combinatorial explosion, (iii) perception of similarity at a strategic level, and (iv) a state of meaningful anticipation over how a global scenario may evolve.
Under Review, Cognitive Systems Research
Questioning Chase and Simon’s (1973) “Perception in Chess”
Alexandre Linhares & Anna Freitas
Abstract. We believe chess is a game of abstractions: pressures; force; open files and ranks; time; tightness of defense; old strategies rapidly adapted to new situations. These ideas do not arise on current computational models, which apply brute force by rote-memorization. In this paper I assess the computational models of CHREST and CHUMP, and argue that chess chunks must contain semantic information. This argument leads to a rather bold claim, as we propose that key conclusions of Chase and Simon’s (1973) influential study stemmed from a non-sequitur.
A note on the problem of inappropriate contextual ads
Alexandre Linhares, Paula Mussi França, & Christian Nunes Aranha
Abstract. A contemporary industry of growing significance is web advertising. Ad inserts are made automatically in these systems: engines access the content of a search or of a webpage and attempt to find, using advanced economic and statistical models, a “contextual” insert of maximum expected utility. In this work we present the problem of inappropriate contextual ads. We distinguish between three types of undesirable contextual ads: (i) non-contextual ads; (ii) token-substitution ads; and (iii) inappropriate contextual ads. Inserts can be extremely inappropriate: in fact, shocking, outrageous, and disrespectful. We denominate such cases as catastrophic contextual ads. Despite being relatively rare, these catastrophic inserts might occur in large absolute numbers. We identify a series of reasons, following recent studies from cognitive science, for such phenomena. Finally, we propose some tentative solutions to the problem.
Theory of constraints and the combinatorial complexity of the product mix decision
Abstract – The theory of constraints proposes that, when production is bounded by a single bottleneck, the best product mix heuristic is to select products based on their ratio of throughput per constraint use. This is not true for cases when production is limited to integer quantities of final products. We demonstrate four facts which go directly against current thought in the TOC literature. For example, there are cases on which the optimum product mix includes products with lowest product margin and lowest ratio of throughput per constraint time, simultaneously violating the margin heuristic and the TOC-derived heuristic. Such failures are due to the NP-hardness of the product mix decision problem, also demonstrated here.
Friday, August 15, 2008
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